Tuesday, June 2, 2020

The Allegory of Rape in Paradise of the Blind - Literature Essay Samples

In the novel Paradise of the Blind, Duong Thu Huong tells the story of Hang, a native Vietnamese girl, following the establishment of independence in Vietnam and the imposition of Communism. Vietnam, with a historical background of invasion by foreign entities, was initially accepting of the system of Communism because it allowed them independence from their prior colonial oppressors. However, when corruption began to infiltrate the system, the flaws in the idealistic government system were illuminated. Through the allegory of the orphan rape in Paradise of the Blind, Huong demonstrates the failure of Communism in its implementation as a result of the ignorance of the Vietnamese to political injustices and the inevitability of corruption in a repressive Vietnamese regime. Through the characterization of the deputy director, Huong demonstrates the inevitability of corruption in a Communistic system in Vietnam as a result of human weakness. The director is first described very benevolently, stating that â€Å"whenever he opened his mouth, it was always to give a morality lecture† (Huong 213). The deputy director is described as a moral figure, dedicated to the preaching of a â€Å"revolutionary spirit, a sense of discipline, international obligations, [and] civic duty† (213). Similarly, the system of Communism idealized concepts of morality, teaching the practice of supporting one another, and uniting members of different societal classes. The characterization of the deputy director shifts dramatically as the allegory progresses, revealing the hypocrisy of his character. The Director is seen â€Å"crushing a nine-year-old girl under him [as she] squirmed beneath him in pain† (213). Rape is typically associated with lust and desire for power and domination. The rape of the little girl illuminates the human weakness of the deputy director, as he holds these very sinful vices of lust and greed as opposed to the traditional values of love, and the moral integrity he once held. Comparatively, the system of Communism held a dedication to moral values and sharing among all. However, in its implementation, the system became corrupt as a result of the inability of the Vietnamese to abide by these principles. Lured by the opportunity of wealth and power, many abandoned the original values and concepts idealized by the system of Communism. The juxtaposition of the character Bich with the seven deadly sins reveal the inevitable corruption of Communism as a result of human weakness. The character Bich had a background as a â€Å"soldier, expelled from the French Colonial Army† (25). Bich has a background in the military, a position that is often associated with nobility and dedication to nationalism. However, his allegiance was not towards the Vietnamese people but rather to the French colonizers, the previous oppressors of Vietnam. In addition, Bich is described as â€Å"very lazy† (25). This alludes to one of the seven deadly sins; the sloth, which is characterized by the avoidance of engaging in physical work or tasks. Bich was promoted by Chinh to the status of â€Å"‘agricultural proletarian’ and ‘pillar of land reform’† (26). As soon as he achieved this very ironic surge to power, he became â€Å"intoxicated with himself. His satisfaction was that of a creeping, paras itic vine† (26). The description of Bich alludes again to the seven deadly sins, as he is crafted with the sin of pride for his own very misplaced abilities and accomplishments. It seemed noble to assist Bich because of his background as a war veteran dedicated to nationalism and equality, the epitome of Communistic values in Vietnam. However, his commitment to these principles are tainted by the weaknesses of his character, which are shown through the description of his sins. Similarly, Communistic leaders of Vietnam were unable to implement the system with its original intent due to their weakness in the face of the opportunity of wealth and power. Huongs characterization of the orphan girl demonstrates the vulnerability of the native people to corruption as a result of their lack of education and cultural background. The little girl is described as â€Å"mentally ill, the orphan of a railroad man† (213). The quality of the little girl’s mental state is similar to that of the natives, who were disillusioned and manipulated by Communist leaders as a result of their lack of education. In addition, the little girl is the â€Å"orphan of a railroad man† (213). Having no roots, the little girl is representative of the native people of Vietnam. The little girl is without a father figure, who typically is responsible for providing structure and purpose in a child’s life. With an extensive history of colonization and the occupation of foreign entities, Vietnam lacked a similar infrastructure to the father figure, having no roots or background to support the development of their country. They were therefore v ulnerable to exploitation and corruption due to the possibility of a foreign entity or ideology assuming power in Vietnam. The deputy director, while raping the orphan, â€Å"gagged her with his hand† (213). The mouth is a mechanism of expression and communication. Her inability to speak and express her voice is similar to the ways in which the voices of the people in Vietnam were stifled by corrupt leaders. The people were unable to speak out against corruption and violence because of fear of conforming to political pressures within their government. In addition, the orphan girl is described as very â€Å"sweet and very generous, sharing every-thing with us, even a mandarin orange or a guava† (214). The characterization of the orphan girl as very sweet and generous is juxtaposed with the description of the rape scene. This juxtaposition suggests that these characteristics of the orphan girl are exploited by the Director, leading to her manipulation. This is displayed through the characterization of Chinh regarding the treatment of his own family. Chinh pleads for money from Que near the beginning of the novel, stating that â€Å"My wife and I have asked for a transfer here to the capital they’ve allocated us money for an apartment. But we’re going to need some money to fix it up and furnish it† (52). Que agrees to give money to Chinh because of her devotion to the puritanical values of family and sharing, similar to the values held by the orphan girl. However, when Hang traveled to Uncle Chinh’s house to ask for money to supplement the medical expenses of Que’s surgery, Chinh bickered with Aunt Chinh about these expenses, asking her â€Å"Can we borrow some [money]?’ [to which Aunt Tam replied] ‘Absolutely not. We have never borrowed money from anyone†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (223). Uncle Chinh, although seemingly devoted to the Communistic concepts of sharing and equality among all people, refused to help his own sister as she is dying. Compared to the rape of the orphan girl, Que is exploited by Chinh for money, and when Que’s health is deteriorating, Chinh does not express the same devotion to these values, despite the fact that he has more than enough financial stability to do so and he very ironically preached these same philosophies in the past as a member of the Communist party. The laughing children witnessing the rape of the orphan girl are crafted to represent the passivity of the native people due to their ignorance, resulting in the severity of corruption under the Communist government. A group of children, including the Bohemian in his childhood, heard â€Å"muffled screams coming from the other side [of the courtyard]† (213). They could see the â€Å"deputy director, naked as a worm, crushing a nine-year-old girl under him. She cried as he got on with his business. We shrieked with laughter. We took turns watching† (213). The disillusionment of the people of Vietnam is evident through this passage. Children are typically associated with the connotation of innocence and ignorance, unable to perceive acts of injustice and evil. Similarly, the native people are given qualities of the same ignorance, blind to corruption and injustice that occurred under their own government. Rather than perceiving the unspeakable act of rape and corruption w ith disgust and anguish, the majority of the children blindly laughed at the incident and allowed the girl to be violently exploited, with the exception of the Bohemian, who represents a very minute faction of people able to detect corruption within Vietnam. However, the majority accepted injustice as a way of life and allowed corruption to infiltrate their country through their passivity. This is further exemplified by the historical background of the author Huong. At the age of â€Å"twenty, she volunteered to lead a Communist Youth Brigade sent to the front during the Vietnam War† (1). Huong, who centers her book around the repression and corruption that inevitably accompany Communism, was once part of a brigade designed to promote the system in Vietnam. The irony of her uprising as a political activist against Communism parallels the same struggle of the native Vietnamese. In the same way that Huong was swayed blindly towards the Communist party despite her contradictory political beliefs, the people were ignorant and were therefore very easily manipulated by their government. Works Cited Huong, Duong T. Paradise of the Blind. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1993. Print.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparing The Story Of Oedipus Rex And The Kite Runner

The story of Oedipus Rex and The Kite Runner are set in two very different periods of time. Oedipus Rex takes place in ancient Greece where the king, Oedipus, kills his father and marries his mother. The Kite Runner takes place in Afghanistan and America, where a young boy named Amir reflects on his past about the time he spent in Afghanistan and the events that took place involving the country. However, even though the two books are separated in difference between space and time, they share many common themes. One of the most common ones between them is the fact that both fathers in each novel died tragically; resulting in suffering for the main protagonists. Both Oedipus and Amir need to figure out how to deal with the truth about their†¦show more content†¦His children, who were produced from the same mother, are now cursed under his own rule that he placed upon himself and his family by accident, and his act of self-inflicted blindness. Oedipus claims he did this so that his eyes, â€Å"...would not see the evils he had suffered or the evils he had done†¦Ã¢â‚¬  ;therefore, he punished himself due to the actions he had committed (Sophocles 56). Oedipus never knew the true origin of his birth, since he believed that Polybus was his father since he raised him his whole life. When news reached that Polybus died from old age, Oedipus rejoiced, for he had proved that he was not to kill his father after all. He was surprised to hear that the messenger who had brought the information of Polybus’ death also had information on his true origin; something he had been searching for since the blind prophet, Tiresias, told him about the prophecy. The answer was, of course, that Oedipus really did kill his father. Even though this was a tragedy in itself, yet another tragedy was created because of it. When Oedipus blinded himself and left in exile, this would certainly mean death for him. Unlike today, if someone found a blind man alone, they would surely help him. Not in ancient Greece. No one would want to be near him due to the curse he placed on himself and the sins he had committed. Without help, Oedipus would surely starve or dehydrateShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Kite Runner And Oedipus Rex 1309 Words   |  6 Pagesmultiple genres, themes can still parallel each other regardless that they will appear in two altogether varying works conceived and written by very different authors and in distinctly separate timeframes. Even as The Kite Runner is written as a work of historical fiction and Oedipus Rex develops a well known and praised Greek tragedy, a theme of betrayal places itself throughout both. Literature demonstrates that morals can genuinely be learned through any method. In both pieces of literature, betrayalRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesConflict 375 SKILL LEARNING 376 Interpersonal Conflict Management 376 Mixed Feelings About Conflict 376 Diagnosing the Type of Interpersonal Conflict 378 Conflict Focus 378 Conflict Source 380 Selecting the Appropriate Conflict Management Approach 383 Comparing Conflict Management and Negotiation Strategies 386 Selecti on Factors 386 Resolving Interpersonal Confrontations Using the Collaborative Approach A General Framework for Collaborative Problem Solving 391 The Four Phases of Collaborative Problem Solving

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Qualities of a Strong Teenage Girl free essay sample

Qualities of a Strong Teenage Girl Being a teenage girl, I know what it is like to be let down, put down, and feel completely alone. But I also know what it takes to get back up, be courageous, and fight. One quality a teenage girl must have is courage. Courage to stand up for yourself and others. To succeed, a teenage girl must have smarts. Street smarts as well as book smarts are important. However, one quality that most teenage girls have is a carelessly open heart; letting anyone in that tries. These qualities of a teenage girl may lead her to heartbreak and emotional struggles, but overall can contribute to a successful life. The first quality an adolescent girl must have to succeed, is courage. One reason for this quality is because girls in our society can be mean and nasty. They can say rude things behind the backs of others and they dismiss accountability. The teenage girls who have courage to confront these behaviors show integrity and leadership. Another reason why teenage girls need courage is to survive the sad and unexpected events life brings. When my grandma died recently, I was sad and felt all alone. I had the courage to help myself and my family. I made it through the difficult time and learned from that. One last reason teenage girls need courage is to step out of their comfort zone. They are able to take the risk to experience new things and explore more places and events. Having the courage to â€Å"stretch yourself can be the path to great achievements. Teen girls are sometimes encouraged to be passive, to stick to themselves and to be quiet. But to do something that you believe in, to go beyond your comfort zone, and to attempt something challenging, takes courage. As you can see, a teenage girl needs courage to succeed socially as well as mentally and emotionally. The second quality a teenage girl must have to succeed is intelligence. One reason they need this is to get farther in life. According to the United States Department of Labor, it is proven that women with higher than a high school diploma earn more income than women with a high school degree or lower. In order for teenagers to earn more money in the real world, they have to have to be educated. Another reason intelligence is important for teenagers is to develop common sense and problem solving skills. They need this in order to stay alert and tuned into their surroundings wherever they areat school or the mall, on the street, waiting for a bus or subway, or driving. With this quality, they send the message of calmness, confidence, and purpose. One more reason teenage girls must have intelligence is to sense and respond to the feelings others. When I know someone is mad or having a bad day, I may not mention it to them. I may try and make them feel happier with a kind comment or gesture. Teenage girls need to have the intelligence to realize when to address an issue and when to allow the moment to pass unaddressed. These personal approaches take sensitivity and intelligence, which is another key factor to being a successful teenager as well as adult. Another quality a teenage girl has that may lead to emotional difficulties is when she exposes her vulnerabilities through her carelessly open heart. This may happen when a girl finds herself attached and makes a one-sidedly commitment to someone else. I have a friend who falls in love and commits herself whole heartedly with any boy willing to show her attention. Doing this, she sets herself up for heartbreak. Many teenage girls feel they need to give more of themselves than they receive from their partner. This imbalance can cause a girl to overcommit herself and may make her partner feel less invested and less commited to the relationship. She may do this because she wants to feel loved and needed. This leads to my second reason which is the motivation of her partner. He may be looking to take advantage of her and wishes to leave her heartbroken. When the partner realizes the girls despiration, he feels a position of power and can further take advantage of her; body and soul. Through my experience, I hear how girls can be taken advantage of, and move from partner to partner as a reaction. Avoiding a broken heart can be accomplished by having a strong heart that is selective and strives for mutual and balanced commitment. A final reason for a teenage girl to be cautious with her heart is in connection to her self worth. When a girl gets her heart broken, she may feel intense loneliness, or she may look quickly for someone else to love and care for in order to avoid or fill the void of emotional pain. She may start feeling negatively about herself and her body and believe she will never be good nough. This poor self image can lead to severe depression and self harm. Many times, this heartache happens because a girl lets someone into her life without boundaries, or standards and once she realize this, she can feel defeated. For these reasons, having an open heart without using intelligence is a dangerous combination for a teenage girl. As you can see by the reasons above, teenage girls must have intelligence and courage to be successful. And one thing that could prevent this success is by having a carelessly open heart; letting anyone in that comes their way. Being a teenage girl can be the worst time of your life, but it can also be the best. Teenage girls go through many meaningful learning experiences which can help them in their later years. These years are impressionable and can impact how their future is defined. I was like any other teenage girl who wanted to be someone Im not, and that was defined by what boys liked and what images of beauty the media perpetrated. The minute you stay enthralled with a diet or get caught up in how you think you should look, you lose, because youre not enjoying life.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

The Hip-Hop Defense free essay sample

Everyone has an opinion about the influence of hiphop music on our nations youth. Many people, such as politicians and the ultra conservative, feel the influence is destructive and incites violent behavior. Some people, for instance the media, believe hip- hop glamorizes inappropriate behaviors and actions while promoting the demoralization of women in general, but more specifically black women. Few people are willing to speak out and defend hip-hop music as communicative form of art. In the article â€Å"In Defense of Hip Hop† Cathleen Rountree argues people, young and old alike, are hasty to blame hip-hop in justification of their atrocious tirades, actions, and behaviors without fully understanding what hip-hop is, and what it represents. The â€Å"B word†, â€Å"ho†, and â€Å"trick† are just a few of the demoralizing and degrading slang words spoken in relation to women in some hip-hop music. Rountree uses national radio personality Don Imus’s April 4, 2007 racially insensitive verbal degradation against a female basketball team as an example of how hip-hop is a â€Å"scapegoat† to justify inappropriate and offensive comments and actions. We will write a custom essay sample on The Hip-Hop Defense or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Rountree makes note of the fact that Imus has a documented history of making insensitive and sometimes racial comments. If the history of Don Imus’s comments reflect a pattern of disrespect, degradation, and insensitivity how can hip-hop now be blamed for his April 2007 tirade. In the immediate aftermath of the Imus incident long-standing opponents of hip-hop music resurfaced to once again place blame on the music and the culture instead of on the individuals. Although some critics and activists were courageous enough to lay blame solely on Don Imus, others such as Al Sharpton, came out in defense of Imus stating although Imus ‘s behavior and comments were wrong, he shouldn’t be held accountable when entertainers of the hip-hop industry are not. As far back as 1970 â€Å"the devil made me do it! an expression popularized by a fictional character of comedian Flip Wilson, has been the prevailing comic excuse for misdeeds. Rountree entertains the idea of hip-hop as the equivalent of the devil in that expression, she further implies the music is representative of hip-hop artist surroundings and environment. Anger at a lack of understanding the music before condemning it is Rountrees reaction to the prejudice against hip-hop music, something everyone has done at one time or another. World famous hip-hop artist Tupac Shakur was instrumental, even after death, in Rountrees decision to re evaluate her thoughts and stance on hip-hop. Tupac’s posthumous documentary was a vital factor in her decision to re evaluate the music and the culture. The influence of that documentary so profoundly affected Rountree she devoted a section of her teaching curriculum to the study of hip-hop. Tupac Shakurs’ documentary altered Rountree’s entire perception of hip-hop as a music and a culture. Her eyes were opened to the meaning of the lyrics as expressions of the lives of the artists. She further states the artistic side of the music is representative of various aspects of society, politics and spirituality as well as bridging a gap to the different demographics that make up our country. In the summer of 2007 Queen Latifah a well-known female hip-hop artist, and actor Bruce Willis funded a project titled â€Å"The Hip-Hop Project† detailing a young mans’ plea to the youth of his community to share their life stories and experiences through the art of hip-hop. The focus of the project encourages the group to produce a realistic and vivid image of their everyday life in the form of words and music. With the support of Bruce Willis and other well-known figures in the hip-hop industry the album was completed to the satisfaction of all parties involved. Rountrees accolades to the success of the CD, indicates her complete change of mind of the subject of hip-hop. Overall, the article â€Å"In Defense of Hip-Hop† shows the authors willingness to open her mind to learning things she doesn’t understand. Her allusions to hip-hop as a form of social commentaries to bridge the differences of society, reflects the knowledge she ascertained on her journey of self-discovery. Hip-Hip frequently receives negative publicity due to the content of the lyrics, without ever considering what the lyrics actually mean. The Hip-Hop Project, was produced to show the more positive aspects of the art form. Roundtree states †this is a story of hope, healing and the realization of dreams and should be required viewing for Don Imus and Al Sharpton†.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

4 Tips for Finding Online Sources You Can Trust - Proofed

4 Tips for Finding Online Sources You Can Trust - Proofed 4 Tips for Finding Online Sources You Can Trust Online sources can be vital when researching a college paper. But the internet is also a massive repository of lies and nonsense. And that means that you need to be careful when citing a website in your written work. So, then, how can you find online sources you can truly trust? 1. Check the Credentials Look at who wrote and published the page you’ve found. Ideally, it will have a named author who you can google to find their qualifications and past publications. If you cannot find any information, look elsewhere. Likewise, online sources published by well-known organizations are usually more trustworthy. For example, an article about urban myths posted on the Scientific American website will be more trustworthy than a post by Mad Bob the Bigfoot Hunter taken from www.crypto-news.bz. With evidence like this, why wouldnt you believe Mad Bob?(Photo: RyanMcGuire) 2. Writing Quality A reliable source should be well written and error free, so look out for spelling or grammar mistakes on websites you want to cite. If nothing else, a lack of proofreading may suggest the author has been similarly careless when it comes to fact checking! Similarly, the tone of a website can tell you a lot. It is typically a good sign if the language is formal and academic. If it is informal or full of slang terms, however, you might want to look elsewhere. 3. Crosscheck Sources If you find new information online but aren’t sure you trust the website, check whether it cites any sources. This could be a reference list, but it could also be links to other sites that provide extra information or data to back up the point being made. It is also a good idea to crosscheck sources against one another. If you find a useful statistic on one website, for instance, look to see if it is used on other reliable sites. This is especially important when a page was published years previously, since the information may not be up to date. 4. Don’t Cite Wikipedia We have nothing personal against Wikipedia. In fact, it is a fantastic free source of information on a huge array of topics for day-to-day life. The problem is that is isn’t always entirely factual. Even Wikipedia admits that Wikipedia is not a reliable source. Anyone can edit a Wikipedia page, after all. And that is a bit like anyone being able to come along and rewrite the books in your college library, which we imagine would cause problems. But while it is not an academic source, Wikipedia can be helpful. If you find some interesting facts in an article, check the citations at the bottom of the page. These should point to more reliable sources, such as books or journal articles. You can then find these and use the original sources instead.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Built facilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Built facilities - Essay Example The specificity of this new technology is bound to influence design, construction and maintenance of the building process. The following sections illustrate how information technology is dominating over this process and going to dominate in the coming years. Architectural Design Architecture is an art of modeling of the human environment, and designing of behavior of people from the same environment, through a functional organization of space and form of elements of objects and system via creative composition and color. Inspiration plays an important role in architectural art of modeling. An architectural design seeks for newer and amazing forms and shapes of the objects. Shape and form are part of architectural style. It is a set of core features and attributes of the specific time and place. It reveals specific detail of its functional, constructive, and the artistic form of a particular period of human civilization. The foundation of architectural design is the shape and form. Unt il the advent of digital technology architects could only use Euclidean geometrical figures to develop the shape and form of the facility. Digital technology helped architects go beyond the Euclidean geometry. Architectural design process uses the latest technical achievements as tools. It happened during the industrial revolution, and it is happening now. ... Standardization gave birth to mass customization, which is now getting replaced by mass production with non-standard complex designs based on non-Euclidean geometries. In architecture, digital age has brought a new design approach and it is called parametric design approach. This new approach is going to influence architectural design process for coming years. Only advent of digital technology made architects possible to implement parametric design method. Various programs used as tools for parametric design method are developed using the concept of disciplines like mathematics, topological geometry, and curvilinearity, morphogenetic, and biomorphic. The concept of parametric design approach is embedded in creating a model of geometric elements describing and controlling their relationship in such a way that any change in one element brings changes to all other elements. Parametric design method uses geometric model whose geometry is a function of a finite number of parameters. Param eters of the elements and their spatial relationships constitute the model. It helps architects to generate a variety of building shapes within a short term and exclude basic mistakes. The essence of parametric design constitutes in creating a mathematical model for structurally homogeneous products, and then with the help of a defined set of dimensional parameters, the structural configuration and spatial arrangement of elements of the system are changed through an algorithm. This new advances in design process are reshaping today’s architecture laying foundation of architectural design of coming years. The architect can incorporate the geometrical design data numerically with the environment and study

Friday, January 31, 2020

Stakeholder needs Essay Example for Free

Stakeholder needs Essay Excecutive Summary The department of Electrical/Electronics and Aerospace Engineering, as part of the School of Technology of Springfield College has clear notions regarding first-order stakeholders and their requirements. The position of second-order and other stakeholders may not be entirely clear to the entire team and there may be opportunities for improvements. There are harmonised quality standards in place, which meet stakeholder’s requirements but further improvements should be implemented for the benefit of all stakeholders. Continuous improvement and change are generally promoted within the department but the current culture may not support these to the highest standard possible. Introduction This assignment aims to analyse and discuss the meeting of stakeholder requirements to agreed quality standards and seeking improvements, applied to a chosen organisation, i.e. Springfield College – School of Technology (E/E, Aerospace). The report will attempt to examine three main parts, namely, identifying stakeholders and their requirements, applying and improving quality standards, and promoting continuous improvement and  change. Each of these will be presented as a task with additional sub-headings to meet the assessed learning outcomes, e.g. Task 1 – 1.1, 1.2, etc. The report will be of academic nature rather than attempting to provide a narrative. Therefore the focus will lie on critique, analysis and opinion, supported by academic theory. It will also question the processes, benefits and values of methodology adopted by the chosen organisation, underpinned by relevant theory. In part one, the report will discuss who the stakeholders are and their expectations, how the organisation meets them, how these are communicated internally, and what processes for up to date information are in place. Part two will discuss the meaning of quality in the organisation, what organisational quality policies and procedures are in place, how teams are encouraged to improve quality, and what improvements could be made. Part three, will discuss needs for continuous improvement, assess work activities and identify areas for improvement, and discuss how to teams can contribute ideas for continual improvement. Sources of information will be referenced and citations will be used in the report. Task 1 (Be able to identify stakeholders and their requirements) (1.1 Determine organisational stakeholders and their expectations) There are a number of stakeholders attached to the department of Electrical/Electronics and Aerospace, which could be divided into first-order, second order, and other stakeholders, i.e. learners, employers and the local community plus local industry being first-order stakeholders. Second-order stakeholders include teaching staff, college leadership, middle management, awarding bodies, and quality departments. Other stakeholders may include OFSTED, suppliers, admin and support departments, contractors and others. Appendix 1 (Figure 2) shows a stakeholder map of the department. Boddy (2002) divides stakeholders into levels of interest versus levels of power, which is called the power/interest matrix. This tool of analysis applied to the department discussed would suggest that learners, employers, and the local community/industry form the key players; Awarding bodies, OFSTED and QA departments should be kept satisfied, admin and other internal stakeholder should be kept informed and suppliers, contractors and others would fall into the minimal effort category. This leaves teaching staff in a special category, as they support all stakeholders without necessarily interest or  power for themselves. However, in terms of delivery, they are key players. The expectations of stakeholders vary and first and foremost are learners with the expectation of receiving education and qualifications. Employers expect trained apprentices and access to potential qualified employees with good skills, and as they have a choice of provider, they also have power. Figure 1 shows a stakeholder matrix, applied to the department. 1.2 Discuss methods of meeting stakeholder expectations or requirements The methods of meeting expectations of stakeholder requirements range from planning, preparing and communicating to assuring, supporting, and certifying. There are however external, as well as internal factors that affect the operating environment. This means that some are controllable (internal, e.g. staff training, technology updates) and some are uncontrollable (external, e.g. government, economy, unemployment, etc.). Consequentially, there a different methods of responding to stakeholder’s needs, according to the environments. For example, technology advances rapidly and learners get used to being able to access all aspects of their course online. Therefore, departments need to plan their future technology capacity. This is where an external factor influences the internal environment, and a weakness can be turned into a strenght by investing in technology. Figure 1 Stakeholder Matrix of the Electrical/Aero Department at Springfield College Therefore, conducting a stakeholder analysis should highlight and prioritise the focus needed to satisfy each stakeholder’s needs. Methods of achieving this can include direct supervision, standardizing inputs and outputs, defining hierarchies (e.g. first and second line support), setting of rules and procedures, and establishing harmonized information systems, such as central databases. 1.3 Identify methods of communicating stakeholders’ requirements with team members Regular team meetings, all staff meetings, training events, stakeholder polls and evaluations, newsletters, emails, memorandums, site visits, open forums, internal blogs and information sharing activities can all contribute to  communicating stakeholder’s needs to team members. Effective communication is key for this, as is a conducive culture, e.g. a culture that shares information willingly amongst team members, rather than keep it hidden. 1.4 Explain processes for updating information on stakeholder requirements As described in 1.3, effective communication is key and the list of methods aids the updating process of responding to changing stakeholder needs. For example, a company that has a number of apprentices in training with Springfield requires more training for multi-skilling their staff. In this case regular meeting, email communiques, and standardised channels of communication should ensure that this need be fullfilled effectively and timely. Task 2 (Be able to apply and improve quality standards) 2.1 Discuss the meaning of quality to an organisation Johnson and Scholes (2002) put forward the notion that quality is important in the improvement of profit performance – for Springfield achievements mean profit/funding. The best situation appears to be a combination of high share and high product, or service quality, but even organisations with low market shares demonstrate significantly higher profit performance (or achievement rates) if they have offerings of superior quality. In this sense, quality can be a partial substitute for market share in sustaining advantage. For many organisations in the 1990s TQM (Total Quality Management) became the number one concern in terms of productivity as it often supported team-based structures as opposed to merely work-based structures. Team-based structures attempt to combine both horizontal and vertical co-ordination through cross-functionality. Some teams would develop, design, support customers, and research new knowledge and hence build around business processes. This leads to empow erment and increased feeling of responsibility, putting staff at the centre of producing quality out of self-determination. In theory this would create a TQM culture, which would benefit the entire organisation.